In 1848, Europe experienced a wave of revolutions. Last week we covered some of the reform movements that presaged these uprisings. This week, we're learning about what the people wanted from the revolutions, who was involved, and how many of those goals were accomplished. We'll look at revolutions in the Austrian Empire, Hungary, Italy, the German States, and the region formerly known as Poland. Sources: -Johann Nepomuk Höfel (1788-1964)-'the first uncensored newspaper are sold in street of Vienna after the revolution of 1848'-watercolour Wien-Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien -Hunt, Lynn et al. The Challenge of the West: Peoples and Cultures from 1320 to the Global Age. Lexington MA: D. C. Heath, 1995. -Judson, Pieter M. The Habsburg Empire: A New History. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2016. -Kent, Susan Kingsley. A New History of Britain: Four Nations and an Empire. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017. -Smith, Bonnie G. Changing Lives: Women in European History Since 1700. Lexington MA: D. C. Heath, 1989. -Sperber, Jonathan. Revolutionary Europe, 1780-1850. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, 2017. Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at Thanks to the following patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Eric Prestemon, Sam Buck, Mark Brouwer, Indika Siriwardena, Avi Yashchin, Timothy J Kwist, Brian Thomas Gossett, Haixiang N/A Liu, Jonathan Zbikowski, Siobhan Sabino, Zach Van Stanley, Jennifer Killen, Nathan Catchings, Brandon Westmoreland, dorsey, Kenneth F Penttinen, Trevin Beattie, Erika & Alexa Saur, Justin Zingsheim, Jessica Wode, Tom Trval, Jason Saslow, Nathan Taylor, Khaled El Shalakany, SR Foxley, Sam Ferguson, Yasenia Cruz, Eric Koslow, Tim Curwick, David Noe, Shawn Arnold, William McGraw, Andrei Krishkevich, Rachel Bright, Jirat, Ian Dundore -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - Twitter - Tumblr - Support Crash Course on Patreon: CC Kids: #crashcourse #history #europeanhistory